Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

UROLOGY referred to as genitourinary surgery, branch of medicine that deals with medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and reproductive organs. Urology organs include the kidneys, adrenals, ureters, bladder, urethra, and male reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis). The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely related and disorders of one often affect the other.  A urinary tract infection naturally occurs in the urinary tract through the urethra, and it initiates growth in the bladder.

Track 1-1. Paediatric Urology

Track 1-2. Female Urology

Track 1-3. Calculi

Track 1-4. Male infertility

Track 1-5. Uro-Neurology

Track1-6. Haematuria

Bladder cancer develops when healthy cells in the bladder lining, most commonly urothelial cells, change and grow uncontrollably, forming a tumour. Urothelial cells line the renal pelvis, ureters, and urethra as well. Cancer that develops in the renal pelvis and ureters is also classified as urothelial cancer and is commonly referred to as upper tract urothelial cancer. 

Track 2-1.Urothelial carcinoma
Track 2-2.Squamous cell carcinoma 
Track 2-3.Adenocarcinoma 

Benign prostatic hyperplasia also referred as prostate gland enlargement is a common condition as men get older. An enlarged prostate gland can make uncomfortable symptoms like blocking the flow of urine from the bladder. It increases in the total number of prostatic stromal cells and prostatic glandular epithelial cells within the transition zone of the prostate.

Endourology refers to a specific area in urology in which small intestine endoscopes and instrumentation are used to see into the urinary tract and perform surgery. It can be used to locate and remove small kidney stones. Stones may be fragmented using tiny instruments inserted into the body through such as the urethra, bladder, ureter, and kidney.

Track 4-1.Kidney stone
Track 4-2.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Track 4-3.Pelvis
Track 4-4.Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
Track4-5.Staghorn stone

Neobladder reconstruction is a surgical procedure that involves the construction of a new bladder.A surgeon can create a new way for urine to exit the body if a bladder is no longer functioning properly or is removed to treat another condition (urinary diversion). Urinary diversion can be treated with neobladder reconstruction.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is sudden failure of kidney or kidney damage it happens in a few days or weeks. When your kidneys lose their ability to filter waste, dangerous levels of waste can accumulate, and makes hard for kidney to keep the right balance of fluid in body.

This is most common in people who are already in the hospital, especially in critically ill people in need of critical care. The main common cause is dehydration and sepsis combined with Nephrotic drugs especially while during surgery or contrast agents.

Renal replacement therapy is a lifesaving treatment for the renal failure patients. Renal failure has become more common these days due to the diet and everyday culture that forces scientists to innovate. It replaces the non-endocrine kidney function in patients with renal damage.

Track7-1.Intermittent haemodialysis,
Track7-2.Continuous hemofiltration
Track7-4.Peritoneal dialysis

Robotic surgery also known as robotic assisted surgery integrates computer technology with the expertise of skilled surgeons. The surgeon may see a 10x magnified high definition 3d view of the body’s complicated anatomy with this technology.

The surgeon manipulates special surgical instruments that are smaller more flexible more manoeuvrable than the human hand using controls on the panel the surgeons hand movements are replicated by the robot which minimizes hand tremors as a result even during the most complex treatments the surgeon can operate with more precision dexterity and control.

Renal cell carcinoma also referred as hypernephroma or renal adenocarcinoma. A type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of the tubules in the kidney is called Renal cell carcinoma. The most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs often in men 60 to 70years old. This affects the small tubules in kidney that helps to transport urine.

Track8 -1. Transitional cell carcinoma
Track8-2. Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma)
Track 8- 3.Renal sarcoma

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a form of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain a penile erection during sexual activity.

It Causes include renal failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological problems such as prostatectomyhypogonadism, and side effects of the drug.

Track 10-1. Penile nerve’s function

Track 10-2. Penile biothesiometry

Track 10-3. Pharmacological therapy with a PDE5 inhibitor

Track 10-4. Reflex erection and psychogenic erection

Track 10-5. Diagnosis of hypogonadism

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged, and you cannot filter your blood as it should. The disease is called "chronic" because the damage to the kidneys occurs slowly over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the accumulation of waste products in the body. CKD can also cause other health problems. The kidney's main job is to filter excess water and waste products from the blood to make urine.

Track 11-1.Analgesic Nephropathy
Track11-2.IgA Nephropathy
Track11-3.Lupus nephritis

Dialysis is a treatment to remove waste products and excess from the blood when the kidneys stop working. Dialysis is an incomplete treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct impaired endocrine kidney  function. As a result, waste products and toxins accumulate in the bloodstream. Dialysis works on the principles of diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a polymeric membrane.

Urodynamic tests are used to diagnose a patient who have urinary incontinence or other symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Both men and women are subjected to these tests. Urodynamic tests are used to measure the following:

·Nerve and muscular activity
·Pressure around the bladder.
·Flow rates and other parameters

Kidney transplantation is surgery to transplant a solid kidney from a living or deceased donor to a person whose kidneys are not functioning properly. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs on either side of the spine below the ribs.

When the kidney loses this filtering capacity, it increases the destruction of water and waste products in the body, increases the circulating pressure and causes kidney failure. Visceral nephropathy occurs when the kidneys lose about 90% of their normal working capacity.

Tumour cells developed in the kidney, prostate, bladder, testicles of men and women are termed as urological cancer. The study and treatment of such cancers are termed as urologic oncology.

Track 15-1. Renal cancer
Track 15-2. Urothelial Carcinoma
Track 15-3. Urinary Tract Infections
Track 15-4. Urogynaecology
Track 15-5. Reconstructive Urology

Nephrology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of various kidney diseases and conditions. It additionally concerned with the treatment of alternative organ diseases related to excretory organs such as cardiovascular diseases.

Track 16-1.Ureteroscopy
Track 16-2.Cystectomy
Track 16-3.Urostomy
Track 16-4.Renal Pathology
Track 16-5.Renal Immunology
Track 16-6.Endocrine Functions of kidney
Track 16-7.Hormones on kidney

Steroid medications, blood products, dialysis, and plasma exchange are all part of nephrological treatment. Because kidney complications can have a significant impact on the quality and length of life, psychological support, health education, and advanced care planning are important in nephrology.

Track 17-2.Extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Track17-3.Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists (Beta-Blockers)
Track 17 -4.Diuretics
Track 17-5.Vasodilator Drugs
Track17-6.Alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonists (Alpha-Blockers)
Track 17-7.Calcium-Channel Blockers
Track 17-8.Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors

Prostate specific antigen also referred as kallikrein 3 or gamma-Seminoprotein. PSA is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by KLK3 gene. Prostate specific antigen a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family. It is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate.

Track 18-1.Prostate cancer

Track 18-2.Prostate cancer screening test

Track 18-3.Elevated PSA level

Track 18-4.Prostate Specific Antigen Test

Renal vasculitis, also referred as ANCA glomerulonephritis, is an autoimmune disease that causes white blood cells to attack the glomeruli, the small blood vessels that filter blood in kidneys. It is a heterogenous group of disorder characterized by inflammation and damage to the blood vessels, arteries, arterioles, and venules. It tends to be severe and fulminant.

Vasectomy is a small operation that prevents sperm from reaching the semen that ejaculates from the penis. Sperm is still present, but not sperm. After vasectomy, the testicles still produce sperm, but they are sucked up by the body. Each year, more than 500,000 men in the United States choose vasectomy for contraception. Vasectomy prevents pregnancy better than non abstinenc contraceptive methods.

Andrology is the study of male diseases and health, particularly related to male reproductive and urological problems that are unique to men. Andrology deals with male infertility, impotence, erectile dysfunction, and andropause, also known as male menopause. It also deals with male contraception. Andrology is the male equivalent of gynaecology, which deals with medical issues relating to the female reproductive system but is less well known.